One of the main ingredients in Rest Easy is sodium lauryl sulfate (which I may sometimes abbreviate SDS after its other name, sodium dodecyl sulfate). It's a common ingredient in shampoo. It seems to be generally accepted as a contact killer. I'm wondering a number of things, particularly (1) does it have some residual activity and (2) are there other surfactants/soaps/detergents/emulsifiers that would work better.
Insects apparently depend on lipids in their cuticles to avoid drying out. At least for grasshoppers (what I could find an article about) these are mostly waxy esters. A waxy ester is a fatty acid attached to a fatty alcohol. The surfactants in household cleaners are chosen to work on the types of greasy stuff we normally encounter. Perhaps something like emulsifying wax would work better on the types of lipids found on bug exoskeletons.
Some information about emulsifying wax:
At least it's cheap:
As I said in the "straight lavender" topic, various essential oils have polar groups on mostly-nonpolar molecules, so it seems as though they might contribute to the same kind of thing even if they're not directly toxic to bugs.
I also note that using both soap and vaseline seems as though it might be counterproductive. Traces of vaseline could supplement or replace the bugs' own surface lipids, much as it does when we rub it on our dry skin.
As I've said in other topics, much of what I write here is speculation, going well beyond what the published evidence really supports. I talk about DIY ideas, and it may sometimes sound as though I think DIY should work just fine. Theoretically, maybe it should. But when I saw a bug, I called the landlord to get a PCO in here. Cooperating with the PCO should be the first line of defense, not some DIY idea I might be brainstorming about on here.
My non-expert 2 cents. Surfactants/detergents seem well accepted as contact killers, ie, hit the bug with enough spray and you're likely to kill it. Likely a good thing to do when you've uncovered your mattress or box spring and want to pick off as many as possible without leaving a bloody mess. Or you've ripped the bottom cover off the box spring and want to knock down the population. I would expect that once dry, though, the substance would have a harder time of getting on the bug's body to do damage. I suspect that they have has little or no residual. If you browse a lot of these type products product pages you'll generally find claims, even lab reports to how quickly they kill, but they are silent or talk around the residual issue.
Note that a lot of "green" over-the-counter bed bug sprays are just scented detergents.
You seem to have a stronger grasp of chemistry than a lot of participants (myself included). I'm guessing that anaything that can muck up their skin is "good". Interesting links!
Products like MPCD are good contact killers too (all directly sprayed BBs die in seconds), but have not any residual effectiveness...
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