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Some bed bugs show early signs of resistance to two common insecticides

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  1. crossroads

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Mon Apr 10 2017 22:03:59
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    The little vampires continue to refine their armour:

    https://phys.org/news/2017-04-bed-bugs-early-resistance-common.html

    In a study to be published next week in the Entomological Society of America's Journal of Economic Entomology, researchers at Purdue University found significantly reduced susceptibility to chlorfenapyr among three out of 10 bed bug populations collected in the field, and they found reduced susceptibility to bifenthrin among five of the populations.

  2. bed-bugscouk

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Tue Apr 11 2017 7:44:19
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    Hi,

    Evolution is a wonderful thing to watch and can happen at a scary pace.

    The reality is that bed bugs are far too adaptable for any chemical based approach to be effective in the long term. Simply put the chemistry is no where near unique or specific enough for this to be anything but the case.

    While it may seem logical to turn to the chemists for a solution it actually does so much harm to do so because it is what creates the selective pressure for the bed bugs to evolve, metabolic modes of action are simply not viable long term solutions with bed bugs.

    It is quite literally the definition of madness because with each new product the belief is that somehow this one will be different, it cant be and "this to will fail".

    It is just a matter of seeing now long it takes for the tanker captains to see they are in shallow waters.

    David Cain
    Bed Bugs Limited

    If you have found this information helpful please consider leaving feedback on social media via google+ or FaceBook or by like/loving the images.

    In accordance with the AUP and FTC (legal requirements) I openly disclose my vested interest in Passive Monitors as the inventor and patent holder. Since 2009 they have become an integral part in how we resolve bed bug infestations. I also have a professional relationship with PackTite in that they distribute my product under their own branding. I do not however receive any financial remuneration for any comments I make about products.
  3. bedbugsbugme

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Tue Apr 11 2017 10:26:34
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    Yeah I've been reading about bed bugs developing a thicker exoskeleton to adapt to pesticides. Scarey. I honestly think nowadays keeping furnature after infestations is a bad idea since steam can only reach so far and chemicals don't do squat. Even storing them for 18 months or using encasements is risky.

    I'm not an expert. Just sharing what I learned from my experience.
  4. crossroads

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Tue Apr 11 2017 11:26:57
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    bed-bugscouk - 3 hours ago  » 
    Evolution is a wonderful thing to watch and can happen at a scary pace. The reality is that bed bugs are far too adaptable for any chemical based approach to be effective in the long term. Simply put the chemistry is no where near unique or specific enough for this to be anything but the case.

    Worth noting in this context, the authors of the latest paper on resistance specifically advocate adherence to integrated pest management practices.

    Interestingly, the Penn State team behind Aprehend claim that cuticle thickening does not reduce the effectiveness of the product:

    Given that the mode of infection of B. bassiana is via germination of the conidia and direct penetration of the apresorium through the cuticle of the host insect, thickening of the cuticle might be expected to impede B. bassiana infection. Nevertheless, studies have shown that B. bassiana was effective on insecticide-resistant insect populations, for example Anopheles mosquitoes, and even on pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans with thicker cuticles and greater amounts of cuticular lipids. Therefore, even if cuticle thickening is associated with insecticide resistance in any of our three bed bug strains, it would appear that B. bassiana infection was unaffected.

    ( http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.4576/pdf pp8-9)

    Since cuticle thickening has been identified as the main adaptation in bed bugs for resistance against chemical insecticides, it will be interesting to see to what extent the above claim stands up once B. bassiana is being used for real.

  5. bed-bugscouk

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Tue Apr 11 2017 12:34:42
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    Hi,

    While product husbandry will slow the rate it will never remove the selective pressure.

    Cuticle issues make good papers and fine reading but its a bit of a red herring when you again look at the fine detail. The only product that looses some power but not all from the thickening of cuticles is DE and only if the rate of replacement of the sequestered lipids is greater than the removal rate or if the developmental process reduces so exoskeletons can be shed faster.

    In terms of BB and silicon dioxide, cuticle interactions the thickening has less of an issue by virtue of the effect of the interaction. With BB the spore simply grows further to pass through the cuticle and the end point of death and bloom is still reached. Silicon dioxide isoforms are different as the mode of action is not as clear but it is clearly not through desiccation as the time line does not support that method.

    While it may be possible for point mutations to occur to change a metabolic mode of action it is far less likely to result in a viable off spring if the change is a dramatic one that effects the whole molecular structure of the outer layers. Its a much broader target to evolve resistance to, there was a very good paper by Michael Potter a few years ago that delved into the genetic basis of resistance pathways. Worth a read if you can follow genetics.

    David

  6. loubugs

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Tue Apr 11 2017 13:15:54
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    This is from 2014
    https://esa.confex.com/esa/2014/webprogram/Paper87124.html

    I believe people didn't wonder about hitting bed bug infestations with 2 classes of insecticides at more or less the same time; if the population had resistance to the pyrethroid (more commonly used one in the beginning), the other class compound would be able to knock them out. There is no reason to assume that resistance can't evolve to both types of insecticides at the same time in a bed bug population - they are not mutually exclusive. And that's why IPM is important so reliance on chemical control alone is not the best way. Granted, it can work at that moment under certain conditions, but you have to understand more than just spraying - you have to know about bed bug behavior, too: Their behavior under "normal conditions" and those under chemical application; behavior in multi-family housing vs single family homes; heat treatments and building construction, etc. ; finally, bed bug behavior and use of monitor devices. There's more and maybe they'll be additional comments by others.

    Professional entomologist/arachnologist. I consult on all matters dealing with insects and arachnids, including those of natural history and biology to pest management and forensic entomology investigations.
  7. Richard56

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Tue Apr 11 2017 16:32:48
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    "Ombugsman" posted an interesting idea recently. In a nut shell he recommended that before you let a pro treat, have them test whatever pesticide(s) they will use against one or more of the bugs from the infestation.

    I wonder why this isn't more commonly done? Sort of like when you go to a urologist with an infection. If the culture comes out positive, they then test the bacterial strain against several different classes of antibiotics. They then treat with the antibiotic that is most effective for that particular strain.

    A similar approach sounds logical with bed bugs. Of course, live bugs aren't found in every infestation, but when they are, why not have them tested against several of the standard pesticides and then treat with the most effective? Or, if they show resistance to all of them, then proceed with another approach.

    Maybe Lou or one of the pros will comment on this.

    Richard

  8. loubugs

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Wed Apr 12 2017 5:33:55
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    Richard56 - 12 hours ago  » 
    "Ombugsman" posted an interesting idea recently. In a nut shell he recommended that before you let a pro treat, have them test whatever pesticide(s) they will use against one or more of the bugs from the infestation.
    I wonder why this isn't more commonly done? Sort of like when you go to a urologist with an infection. If the culture comes out positive, they then test the bacterial strain against several different classes of antibiotics. They then treat with the antibiotic that is most effective for that particular strain.
    A similar approach sounds logical with bed bugs. Of course, live bugs aren't found in every infestation, but when they are, why not have them tested against several of the standard pesticides and then treat with the most effective? Or, if they show resistance to all of them, then proceed with another approach.
    Maybe Lou or one of the pros will comment on this.
    Richard

    Bed bug insecticide testing is already done and there is a packaged product system that can be bought. http://pestweb.com/assets/files/productdocuments/doc_368EC25BE87051CBD03391FBBF94934979492C96.pdf

  9. Ombugsman

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Wed Apr 12 2017 8:17:21
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    Probably fewer than 1% of PCOs follow this practice. When I mentioned it a few weeks ago, BigDummy mocked it proudly stating: I've never tested a bed bug for its resistance to chemicals, choice of music or hairstyle, I prefer to just kill them. There were pros on this site who maintained that there was no real difference between CimeXa and DE after the Potter field and lab tests. If you're waiting for most PCOs to adopt best practices, you'll be waiting a long time.

    But what is possible is for bed bug victims to be more proactive here. Wieler's monitor tested about 7 times more attractive as a harborage than David's monitor and is much easier to inspect to boot. And you'll probably end up being able to buy 3 of his monitors for the price of one of David's. What that means is more victims will be finding live bugs in these monitors. They should be encouraged to keep these bug(s) after they've been identified as bed bugs and then ask a PCO to test it/them for resistance to the PCO's chemicals. I would hope bedbugger.com would encourage this practice on the part of bed bug victims and maybe even include it in a FAQ somewhere.

  10. Richard56

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Wed Apr 12 2017 9:31:31
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    Thanks for the link Lou.

    One approach is to mandate testing when possible through whatever governing bodies apply. In the same way that in some places a PCO can only treat if certain criteria is made, it seems reasonable that any pesticide based treatment should be tested in advance where samples can be found. I imagine there will be those who say, "who needs more regulations" but from what I've read here the industry is full of regulations for good cause and this seems to be a very good cause. It could be as simple as adding this requirement to the label instructions of the various pesticides.

    Richard

  11. Ombugsman

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Wed Apr 12 2017 9:40:17
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    @Richard56 - The impetus for government action could be that some PCOs won't follow the label in applying chemical pesticides when they encounter resistant or moderately resistant strains, thereby endangering the health of the resident. They might apply too much or apply it to places outside of those identified on product label. Leon Wieler noticed this happening as he describes in one of his blog posts:

    http://www.winnipegbedbugheating.com/pesticide-resistance-exterminator-practice/

  12. Richard56

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Wed Apr 12 2017 9:53:29
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    Not sure if you're arguing for or against a new label requirement for testing. There will always be some that will not follow label guidelines but I would like to assume this is a miniority of PCO's although my very few experiences with PCOs (non bed bug related) sounded similar to Leon's description of "pools of chemicals" all over.

    Richard

  13. jim danca

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Wed Apr 12 2017 10:49:27
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    I've been doing bedbug work for seven years now and I don't believe the future is ever going to be exclusively dependent on traditional pesticides.

    PCO and inventor of a bio active bedbug trap
  14. crossroads

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Wed Apr 12 2017 11:58:59
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    Thanks for the link Lou, and very interesting views from everyone. Seems that link is the 2014 announcement of the same study.

    Btw the 2017 results paper is:
    https://academic.oup.com/jee/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/jee/tox070/3112039/Detection-of-Reduced-Susceptibility-to?redirectedFrom=fulltext

  15. bed-bugscouk

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Wed Apr 12 2017 14:18:17
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    Hi Ombugsman,

    I have responded to your fake claims in the location where you first made them.

    Please stop repeating them.

    David

  16. Ombugsman

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Wed Apr 12 2017 15:28:53
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    "Fake Claims"? The test was conducted by Richard Naylor, a very respected British entomologist and researcher whom you've cited repeatedly before. You claim the test is invalid because you made "minor" changes to the monitor. Could you cite anywhere in the last year or so where you have mentioned that? And why don't you tell us what those minor changes are so we could have someone inspect the two monitors to verify. Even if there are minor changes, are you expecting people to believe they would have made a material difference in the huge difference in the test results between yours and Leon's monitors? And you're more than welcome to commission Naylor to repeat the test using a different monitor.

    Now it's time to talk about real fake claims. You're on this board every day pushing TbyPMR protocol for DIYers where you tell victims to tough it out being bit by bugs for 14 days because by then all the bugs will have relocated to your monitor. We know from Naylor's test that is complete and utter baloney. Shame on you. I hope you will now stop repeating that fake claim and, if you don't, that NoBugs ban you from this site.

  17. bed-bugscouk

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Thu Apr 13 2017 7:21:49
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    Hi,

    I have said many times that there is a shelf life tot he product and the brand you quoted is well outside of that date range.

    You have gone on to make assumptions and statements that are your opinions presented as fake, which they are not.

    You have done this to force me to engage with your abusive trollish behavior and thus derailing the thread once again.

    Its a shame that you only appear to come here to be abusive towards others rather than to offer anything of substance.

    If you would care to check in with Richard I think you will find that we are still working together on projects and I continue to support his work along with many other academics I work directly and indirectly with. Unlike yourself I have met these people, worked side by side with some of them and know from past experience how annoyed they get when they are drawn into such an unprofessional situation to support the narrative of some white knighting bully.

    And sorry you don't even get the award for being my most vile and nasty stalker to date. I sincerely hope you do not inflict this bilious tone on those around you. It would be fascicle but frankly Monty Python beat you to this punch line a long time ago:

    https://youtu.be/dhRUe-gz690?t=2m48s

    If there is anyone stretching the patience of those on the forum I think you will find it is yourself.

    David

  18. Ombugsman

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Thu Apr 13 2017 11:04:55
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    First you claimed Naylor's test is invalid because you made some "minor" changes to your monitor. We're still waiting on a link to a previous post where you ever mentioned that before. But I guess when I said I would check your response by having it verified by an independent party you were scared off and now have changed your tune, focusing on the shelf life.

    I just checked with one of your distributors who told me there is no expiration date stated on the box or monitor (something like "Use by xx/xx/xxxx") and they are not aware of any shelf life. I'm not sure about this David but you might want to check US law to ensure that you have no legal exposure here if the product does indeed have a shelf life. And BTW, looking at their websites, bedbugsupply.com in the US and Midmos in the UK appear to still be selling the BB Alert monitor. I seem to recall only a couple of months ago or so you told someone here there is no difference between the BBAlert and Packtite, that's it's just a different name by distributor.

    There is a 1 year time frame which starts once the monitor is placed on the bed/couch etc where it would be exposed to dust and dirt, potentially reducing its effectiveness over time. But if you're claiming Richard Naylor didn't conduct the test properly for whatever reason you concoct, I suggest you contact him and then post his exact words - a QUOTE - here on bedbugger.com so we may then verify it. Your comments are edging nearer and nearer to libel.

    It's an old technique that when someone doesn't like the message, focus on the messenger. Go ahead call me a troll and abusive. I will confess that it really pisses me off that so many people take advantage of bed bug victims at a time when they're very vulnerable and I will be forthright in confronting those people and won't mince words. But I am heartened when I encounter people like Leon Wieler and will seek to support their efforts to make positive change.'Nuff said.

  19. bed-bugscouk

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Thu Apr 13 2017 12:04:33
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    Hi,

    Please stop with your reading things into what is stated.

    You clearly have your own obsessive and rude agenda. I just wish you would stop distracting from the good work on this forum.

    I can only suggest if you believe my comments to be libelous you either report them as such or speaking to someone who actually understands the term and who will point out to you that certainly in the UK your behavior would put you on the wrong side of the malicious communications act and potentially subject to legal action.

    David

  20. Ombugsman

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Thu Apr 13 2017 14:09:31
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    I have said many times that there is a shelf life tot he product

    You might want to tell your distributors that because two of them just told me there is no expiration date so long as product is in box. One of them sells it under the name of BBAlert and the other Packtite.

    I just wish you would stop distracting from the good work on this forum.

    I think alerting people to a new monitor which was tested by a reputable person to be 5-10 times more effective than yours is good work. Plus it's easier to inspect than yours. Open the cover like a book and you're able to view/dislodge any bugs AND eggs. No need to throw monitor away like you recommend - kaching another $20. I'm working to help Leon find a reseller in the US who would price it low and give bedbugger.com more than other resellers. Is that not good work? And stopping you from making false claims about your monitor so victims don't have to subject themselves to being bit in the hope that all the bugs will relocate to your monitor in 14 days is also good work IMO. Naylor's test showed there's about a 15% chance of that. How many times have we witnessed on bedbugger victims claiming they're still being bitten but there's nothin in your monitor?

    if you believe my comments to be libelous

    You've more or less said Richard Naylor conducted an invalid test. You've provided no compelling evidence to that effect. You haven't contacted him to verify the manner in which he conducted the test. If you look up the definition of libel in the US, you're very near to it.

  21. KillerQueen

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Mon Apr 17 2017 7:31:36
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    knowledge is power

  22. bugged-cdn

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Mon Apr 17 2017 14:58:56
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    Where do we find the expiry date on the Packtite monitors? I didn't see one but maybe I wasn't looking in the right place.

  23. F. Pazos

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    Posted 7 months ago
    Fri Apr 21 2017 0:54:05
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    Wow.... In my shellfish opinion, this fight is very good for getting better and better products to combat bed bugs, so thanks all for this argument

    Professional PCO based in Hong Kong specialized in Bed Bugs.

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